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First Amendment Library:
Robert P. Stewart


Russian immigrants protesting recent U.S. military action in Russia were convicted for two leaflets thrown from a New York City window that called for a strike at U.S. ammunitions plants. Congress had declared in the Espionage Act that such propaganda would harm the war effort, and the Supreme Court had previously upheld the Espionage Act as constitutional in Schenck v. United States (1919).