Table of Contents

Most U.S. college students attend either a public school that is bound by the First Amendment or a private school that commits in writing to following free speech principles. However, FIRE’s annual review of our Spotlight database of speech codes reveals most schools maintain policies that infringe on free speech. 

Of the 489 schools included in FIRE’s Spotlight database, 98 (20%) earn an overall “red light” rating for maintaining policies that clearly and substantially restrict free speech, and 320 (65.4%) earn an overall “yellow light” rating for maintaining policies that impose vague regulations on expression. Only 63 schools (12.9%) earn an overall “green light” rating for maintaining policies that do not seriously imperil free expression. Eight schools (1.6%) receive a “Warning” rating because they do not promise students free speech rights at all. 

While the percentage of green light schools increased this year, this also marks the second year in a row that the percentage of red light schools increased, reversing a 15-year trend of decreasing percentages of red light schools.

In general, private schools maintain more restrictive speech codes than do public schools: Private schools were significantly less likely to earn green light ratings and more likely to earn yellow or red light ratings than public schools. The main contributor to the red light ratings? Schools maintaining overbroad policies on harassment that put protected speech at risk.

Below, you can learn more about the methodology, major findings, and the most common types of speech codes FIRE found and how to fix them. 

If you’d like to encourage a school you care about to revise its speech codes, FIRE is here to help! For more information, contact:

Line graph showing the overall number of spotlight ratings by year distributed by red, yellow, and green light ratings.


FIRE rated 376 four-year public institutions and 113 private institutions on the extent to which their written regulations on student expression restrict free speech. 

Bar graph showing the breakdown of red, yellow, and green light ratings at four-year public institutions and private institutions.

A red light institution maintains at least one policy that both clearly and substantially restricts freedom of speech or bars public access to its speech-related policies by requiring a university login and password for access.

A yellow light institution maintains policies that could too easily be applied to suppress protected speech or maintains policies that, while clearly restricting freedom of speech, restrict relatively narrow categories of speech.

If FIRE finds that a university’s written policies do not seriously threaten student expression, we award it a green light rating. 

When a private university clearly and consistently states that it holds a certain set of values above a commitment to freedom of speech, FIRE gives it a “Warning” rating to alert prospective students and faculty members to this fact. This assessment is based solely on a school’s written regulations and does not take into account its climate for free speech.

Indeed, the speech code ratings do not take into account a university’s “as-applied” violations of student speech rights or other cases of censorship, student- or faculty-led calls for punishment of protected speech, or related incidents and controversies. For a look at the campus climate at top colleges that incorporates such factors, view FIRE’s annual College Free Speech Rankings at:

Major findings

The percentage of schools that earned an overall red light rating increased for the second time in a row this year, reversing a 15-year trend in which the percentage of red light schools decreased. The percentage went from 19.3% last year to 20% this year, with 15.2% of public schools earning a red light rating compared to 36.3% of private schools. This continued backslide is due, in large part, to schools’ continued maintenance of overbroad policies on harassment that can too easily be applied against protected speech.

65.4% of institutions now earn an overall yellow light rating (69.1% of public schools and 53.1% of private schools).

FIRE was pleased to welcome DePauw University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, Radford University, and the University of Tulsa to the green light list this year, bringing the total number of overall green light schools to an all-time high of 63 (15.2% of public schools and 5.3% of private schools). Unfortunately, Western Colorado University adopted a restrictive harassment policy that earns a yellow light rating, so it no longer maintains an overall green light rating. 

Eight schools, or 1.6%, earn a Warning rating. Six private schools and two public military academies earn this rating for clearly placing other values above free expression rights.

In contrast to restrictive speech codes, 105 university administrations, university systems, or faculty bodies have adopted free speech policy statements modeled after the “Report of the Committee on Freedom of Expression” at the University of Chicago, also known as the “Chicago Statement,” actively committing their institutions to upholding freedom of expression. In December 2023, the University of Wyoming adopted a statement titled “Freedom of Expression, Intellectual Freedom, and Constructive Dialogue,” committing to protecting robust, wide-ranging freedom of expression as articulated in the Chicago Statement. It also committed to maintaining institutional neutrality — a principle best articulated by the University of Chicago’s “Report on the University’s Role in Political and Social Action,” or “Kalven Report.”

FIRE anticipates institutions will continue to embrace the ideals of the Chicago Statement in 2024, and we expect an uptick in formal adoptions of institutional neutrality.

Graph showing the percentage of schools earning a red light rating increased from 19.3% last year to 20% this year

Common speech codes and how to fix them

Below are some of the most common types of restrictive speech codes FIRE found while reviewing colleges for this report. “FIRE’s Model Code of Student Conduct” and “Model Speech Policies for College Campuses” webpages provide examples of how to regulate these areas without infringing on protected speech.

FIREs Model Code of Student Conduct

FIREs Model Speech Policies for College Campuses

Harassment and bullying policies

Harassment is not protected by the First Amendment, but schools typically define harassment and bullying so broadly that their policies encompass protected speech. For example, Adams State University defines sexual harassment as “unwelcome conduct that is of a sexual nature or is based on a person’s actual or perceived sex, gender,” or other enumerated category, including “verbal, nonverbal, or physical conduct of a sexual nature.”[1]

To protect free speech, schools must use the Supreme Court’s standard for peer harassment in the educational setting, defining “harassment” as conduct that is “so severe, pervasive, and objectively offensive, and that so undermines and detracts from the victims’ educational experience, that the victim-students are effectively denied equal access to an institution’s resources and opportunities.”[2]

Civility policies

While a university has every right to promote a tolerant and respectful atmosphere on campus, a university that claims to respect free speech must not limit discourse to only the inoffensive and respectful. However, many schools have policies that effectively require compliance with restrictive civility standards. Evergreen State College goes so far as to say, “Civility is not just a word; it must be present in all our interactions.”[3]

Schools should use clearly aspirational language when discussing civility to avoid creating a chilling effect on free speech.

Bias reporting policies

Most campuses have some form of a “bias incident” reporting system: a mechanism for reporting speech or conduct motivated by bias toward a particular characteristic. While some of these policies exist only to support those impacted by such incidents, most impose vague consequences on those who engage in what is often constitutionally protected expression.

For example, Bates College states that examples of bias incidents include “hate speech,” “sexist jokes,” and “disparaging remarks on social media sites.”[4] The college explicitly “reserves the right to address bias incidents that do not rise to the level of a policy violation” through actions such as “education and training,” “remedial and supportive actions,” and “other Informal Resolution mechanisms.”[5]

Instead of arbitrarily punishing students for speech that violates overbroad policies, colleges should make clear their bias reporting teams will not investigate or discipline protected speech and that any participation in informal resolution mechanisms like “education and training” is voluntary.

Protest and demonstrations policies

Universities may enact reasonable, narrowly tailored “time, place, and manner” restrictions that prevent demonstrations from unduly interfering with the educational process.[6] Far too many schools, however, regulate events on the basis of content or viewpoint or place prior restraints or other unreasonable burdens on public expression.

The University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, for example, tells students they must inform campus police 48 hours in advance of using the university’s sole area for demonstrations.[7]

Institutions must instead allow students to spontaneously use publicly available, outdoor areas of the campus for public expression. Without the ability to do so, students are prevented from responding to new and unfolding events.

Posting and distribution of materials policies

Universities often unreasonably restrict the posting or distribution of written materials on campus. Kean University, for one, requires students to reserve an area for distributing materials five days in advance of the activity.[8]

Universities must neither prevent students from spontaneously distributing materials on campus nor require students to seek permission before posting written materials.

Technology usage policies

Universities are no more permitted to infringe on free speech online than on the campus quad. Nonetheless, policies governing online speech are frequently in far worse shape than policies governing in-person speech, often placing impermissible restrictions on the content of the speech or viewpoint of the speaker.

Delaware State University’s policy, for example, bans users of any university technology, including the campus internet, from causing “offense to others” and even from causing “embarrassment” to the university.[9]

Instead, colleges should only ban speech and conduct that is not protected under First Amendment standards, such as harassment and true threats. 


[1] Adams State University Student Handbook, ADAMS ST. UNIV. at 13, (last visited Dec. 28, 2023).

[2] Davis v. Monroe County Bd. of Educ., 526 U.S. 629, 633 (1999).

[3] Evergreen’s Social Contract, EVERGREEN ST. UNIV., (last visited Dec. 28, 2023).

[4] Policy: Section V, BATES COLLEGE, (last visited Dec. 28, 2023).

[5] Id.

[6] See Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U.S. 781, 791 (1989).

[7] Public Forum Use of University Facilities, UNIV. OF MASSACHUSETTS DARTMOUTH (Aug. 24, 2010),

[8] Distribution of Literature Policy, KEAN UNIV., (last visited Dec. 28, 2023).

[9] Acceptable Use Policy, DELAWARE ST. UNIV. at 3 (July 11, 2011), available at


Red Light Schools

Adams State UniversityPublicColorado
Alabama A&M UniversityPublicAlabama
Bates CollegePrivateMaine
Bemidji State UniversityPublicMinnesota
Boston CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Bridgewater State UniversityPublicMassachusetts
California Institute of TechnologyPrivateCalifornia
California State University - Dominguez HillsPublicCalifornia
California State University - FresnoPublicCalifornia
California State University - Monterey BayPublicCalifornia
Case Western Reserve UniversityPrivateOhio
Chapman UniversityPrivateCalifornia
Cheyney University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Chicago State UniversityPublicIllinois
Clark UniversityPrivateMassachusetts
Colgate UniversityPrivateNew York
College of the Holy CrossPrivateMassachusetts
Connecticut CollegePrivateConnecticut
Dakota State UniversityPublicSouth Dakota
Delaware State UniversityPublicDelaware
Dickinson CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Drexel UniversityPrivatePennsylvania
Eastern Illinois UniversityPublicIllinois
Evergreen State CollegePublicWashington
Fitchburg State UniversityPublicMassachusetts
Fordham UniversityPrivateNew York
Fort Lewis CollegePublicColorado
Framingham State UniversityPublicMassachusetts
Furman UniversityPrivateSouth Carolina
Georgetown UniversityPrivateDC
Gettysburg CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Grinnell CollegePrivateIowa
Haverford CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Howard UniversityPrivateDC
Indiana State UniversityPublicIndiana
Kean UniversityPublicNew Jersey
Lafayette CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Lake Superior State UniversityPublicMichigan
Lehigh UniversityPrivatePennsylvania
Lewis-Clark State CollegePublicIdaho
Lincoln UniversityPublicPennsylvania
Louisiana State University - Baton RougePublic Louisiana
Louisiana Tech UniversityPublicLouisiana
Loyola Marymount UniversityPrivateCalifornia
Loyola University ChicagoPrivateIllinois
Macalester CollegePrivateMinnesota
Marquette UniversityPrivateWisconsin
Massachusetts College of Liberal ArtsPublicMassachusetts
Metropolitan State UniversityPublicMinnesota
Middlebury CollegePrivateVermont
Mount Holyoke CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Northeastern UniversityPrivateMassachusetts
Northern Vermont UniversityPublicVermont
Northwestern UniversityPrivateIllinois
Portland State UniversityPublicOregon
Princeton UniversityPrivateNew Jersey
Reed CollegePrivateOregon
Rensselaer Polytechnic InstitutePrivateNew York
Rice UniversityPrivateTexas
Saint Cloud State UniversityPublicMinnesota
Salem State UniversityPublicMassachusetts
Santa Clara UniversityPrivateCalifornia
Shawnee State UniversityPublicOhio
Southern Illinois University at CarbondalePublicIllinois
Southern Illinois University EdwardsvillePublicIllinois
Southern Oregon UniversityPublicOregon
Southwest Minnesota State UniversityPublicMinnesota
St. Olaf CollegePrivateMinnesota
State University of New York - FredoniaPublicNew York
State University of New York - New PaltzPublicNew York
Stevens Institute of TechnologyPrivateNew Jersey
Tennessee State UniversityPublicTennessee
The College of New JerseyPublicNew Jersey
Troy UniversityPublicAlabama
Tufts UniversityPrivateMassachusetts
Union CollegePrivateNew York
University of Alaska AnchoragePublicAlaska
University of Alaska FairbanksPublicAlaska
University of Central OklahomaPublicOklahoma
University of Houston-DowntownPublicTexas
University of Louisiana at MonroePublicLouisiana
University of Louisiana LafayettePublicLouisiana
University of Massachusetts at LowellPublicMassachusetts
University of MiamiPrivateFlorida
University of Notre DamePrivateIndiana
University of Southern CaliforniaPrivateCalifornia
University of Texas at DallasPublicTexas
University of WashingtonPublicWashington
University of WyomingPublicWyoming
Utah State UniversityPublicUtah
Valdosta State UniversityPublicGeorgia
Villanova UniversityPrivatePennsylvania
Virginia State UniversityPublicVirginia
West Chester University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Western Michigan UniversityPublicMichigan
Westfield State UniversityPublicMassachusetts
Winona State UniversityPublicMinnesota
Worcester State UniversityPublicMassachusetts

Yellow Light Schools

Alabama State UniversityPublicAlabama
American UniversityPrivateDC
Amherst CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Angelo State UniversityPublicTexas
Arkansas State UniversityPublicArkansas
Athens State UniversityPublicAlabama
Auburn University at MontgomeryPublicAlabama
Ball State UniversityPublicIndiana
Bard CollegePrivateNew York
Barnard CollegePrivateNew York
Baruch CollegePublicNew York
Binghamton University, State University of New YorkPublicNew York
Black Hills State UniversityPublicSouth Dakota
Bloomsburg University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Boise State UniversityPublicIdaho
Boston UniversityPrivateMassachusetts
Bowdoin CollegePrivateMaine
Bowling Green State UniversityPublicOhio
Brandeis UniversityPrivateMassachusetts
Brooklyn College, City University of New YorkPublicNew York
Brown UniversityPrivateRhode Island
Bryn Mawr CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Bucknell UniversityPrivatePennsylvania
California Maritime AcademyPublicCalifornia
California Polytechnic State UniversityPublicCalifornia
California State Polytechnic University, HumboldtPublicCalifornia
California State Polytechnic University, PomonaPublicCalifornia
California State University - BakersfieldPublicCalifornia
California State University - Channel IslandsPublicCalifornia
California State University - ChicoPublicCalifornia
California State University - East BayPublicCalifornia
California State University - FullertonPublicCalifornia
California State University - Long BeachPublicCalifornia
California State University - Los AngelesPublicCalifornia
California State University - NorthridgePublicCalifornia
California State University - SacramentoPublicCalifornia
California State University - San BernardinoPublicCalifornia
California State University - San MarcosPublicCaliforia
California State University - StanislausPublicCalifornia
Cameron UniversityPublicOklahoma
Carleton CollegePrivateMinnesota
Carnegie Mellon UniversityPrivatePennsylvania
Central Connecticut State UniversityPublicConnecticut
Central Michigan UniversityPublicMichigan
Central Washington UniversityPublicWashington
Centre CollegePrivateKentucky
Christopher Newport UniversityPublicVirginia
Clemson UniversityPublicSouth Carolina
Coastal Carolina UniversityPublicSouth Carolina
Colby CollegePrivateMaine
College of CharlestonPublicSouth Carolina
Colorado CollegePrivateColorado
Colorado School of MinesPublicColorado
Colorado State UniversityPublicColorado
Colorado State University PuebloPublicColorado
Columbia UniversityPrivateNew York
Cornell UniversityPrivateNew York
Dartmouth CollegePrivateNew Hampshire
Davidson CollegePrivateNorth Carolina
DePaul UniversityPrivateIllinois
East Stroudsburg University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
East Tennessee State UniversityPublicTennessee
Eastern Michigan UniversityPublicMichigan
Eastern New Mexico UniversityPublicNew Mexico
Eastern Washington UniversityPublicWashington
Ferris State UniversityPublicMichigan
Florida A&M UniversityPublicFlorida
Florida Atlantic UniversityPublicFlorida
Florida Gulf Coast UniversityPublicFlorida
Florida International UniversityPublicFlorida
Fort Hays State University PublicKansas
Franklin & Marshall CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Frostburg State UniversityPublicMaryland
George Washington UniversityPrivateDC
Georgia Gwinnett CollegePublicGeorgia
Georgia Southern UniversityPublicGeorgia
Georgia State UniversityPublicGeorgia
Governors State UniversityPublicIllinois
Grambling State UniversityPublicLouisiana
Grand Valley State UniversityPublicMichigan
Hamilton CollegePrivateNew York
Harvard UniversityPrivateMassachusetts
Harvey Mudd CollegePrivateCalifornia
Henderson State UniversityPublicAlabama
Hunter College, City University of New YorkPublicNew York
Idaho State UniversityPublicIdaho
Illinois State UniversityPublicIllinois
Indiana University - BloomingtonPublicIndiana
Indiana University - KokomoPublicIndiana
Indiana University - Purdue University ColumbusPublicIndiana
Indiana University - Purdue University IndianapolisPublicIndiana
Indiana University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Indiana University South BendPublicIndiana
Indiana University, EastPublicIndiana
Indiana University, NorthwestPublicIndiana
Indiana University, SoutheastPublicIndiana
Iowa State UniversityPublicIowa
Jacksonville State UniversityPublicAlabama
James Madison UniversityPublicVirginia
Johns Hopkins UniversityPrivateMaryland
Kennesaw State UniversityPublicGeorgia
Kent State UniversityPublicOhio
Kentucky State UniversityPublicKentucky
Kenyon CollegePrivateOhio
Knox CollegePrivateIllinois
Kutztown University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Lock Haven University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Longwood UniversityPublicVirginia
Mansfield University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Marshall UniversityPublicWest Virginia
Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyPrivateMassachusetts
Metropolitan State University of DenverPublicColorado
Miami University of OhioPublicOhio
Michigan State UniversityPublicMichigan
Middle Georgia State UniversityPublicGeorgia
Middle Tennessee State UniversityPublicTennessee
Millersville University of PennsylvaniaPublicPennsylvania
Missouri State UniversityPublicMissouri
Missouri University of Science & TechnologyPublicMissouri
Montana State UniversityPublicMontana
Montana Tech of the University of MontanaPublicMontana
Montclair State UniversityPublicNew Jersey
Morehead State UniversityPublicKentucky
Murray State UniversityPublicKentucky
New College of FloridaPublicFlorida
New Jersey Institute of TechnologyPublicNew Jersey
New Mexico State UniversityPublicNew Mexico
New York UniversityPrivateNew York
Nicholls State UniversityPublicLouisiana
Norfolk State UniversityPublicVirginia
North Carolina A&T State UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
North Dakota State UniversityPublicNorth Dakota
Northeastern Illinois UniversityPublicIllinois
Northern Illinois UniversityPublicIllinois
Northern Kentucky UniversityPublicKentucky
Northern Michigan UniversityPublicMichigan
Northwestern Oklahoma State UniversityPublicOklahoma
Northwestern State UniversityPublicLouisiana
Oakland University PublicMichigan
Oberlin CollegePrivateOhio
Occidental CollegePrivateCalifornia
Ohio UniversityPublicOhio
Oklahoma State University - StillwaterPublicOklahoma
Old Dominion UniversityPublicVirginia
Pennsylvania State University - University ParkPublicPennsylvania
PennWest CaliforniaPublicPennsylvania
PennWest ClarionPublicPennsylvania
Pittsburg State UniversityPublicKansas
Pitzer CollegePrivateCalifornia
Pomona CollegePrivateCalifornia
Queens College, City University of New YorkPublicNew York
Rhode Island CollegePublicRhode Island
Rogers State UniversityPublicOklahoma
Rowan UniversityPublicNew Jersey
Rutgers University - New BrunswickPublicNew Jersey
Saginaw Valley State UniversityPublicMichigan
Sam Houston State UniversityPublicTexas
San Diego State UniversityPublicCalifornia
San Francisco State UniversityPublicCalifornia
San Jose State UniversityPublicCalifornia
Scripps CollegePrivateCalifornia
Sewanee, The University of the SouthPrivateTennessee
Skidmore CollegePrivateNew York
Slippery Rock UniversityPublicPennsylvania
Smith CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Sonoma State UniversityPublicCalifornia
South Dakota State UniversityPublicSouth Dakota
Southeast Missouri State UniversityPublicMissouri
Southeastern Louisiana UniversityPublicLouisiana
Southern Connecticut State UniversityPublicConnecticut
Southern Methodist UniversityPrivateTexas
Southern Utah UniversityPublicUtah
Stanford UniversityPrivateCalifornia
State University of New York - AlbanyPublicNew York
State University of New York - GeneseoPublicNew York
State University of New York - OswegoPublicNew York
State University of New York - University at BuffaloPublicNew York
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and ForestryPublicNew York
Stockton UniversityPublicNew Jersey
Stony Brook UniversityPublicNew York
Swarthmore CollegePrivatePennsylvania
Syracuse UniversityPrivateNew York
Tarleton State UniversityPublicTexas
Temple UniversityPublicPennsylvania
Tennessee Technological UniversityPublicTennessee
Texas Southern UniversityPublicTexas
Texas State University - San MarcosPublicTexas
Texas Tech UniversityPublicTexas
Texas Woman's UniversityPublicTexas
The City College of New YorkPublicNew York
The Ohio State UniversityPublicOhio
The University of Virginia's College at WisePublicVirginia
Towson UniversityPublicMaryland
Trinity CollegePrivateConnecticut
Tulane UniversityPrivateLouisiana
University of AkronPublicOhio
University of AlabamaPublicAlabama
University of Alabama at BirminghamPublicAlabama
University of Alabama in HuntsvillePublicAlabama
University of Alaska SoutheastPublicAlaska
University of Arkansas - FayettevillePublicArkansas
University of California BerkeleyPublicCalifornia
University of California DavisPublicCalifornia
University of California IrvinePublicCalifornia
University of California MercedPublicCalifornia
University of California RiversidePublicCalifornia
University of California San DiegoPublicCalifornia
University of California Santa BarbaraPublicCalifornia
University of California Santa CruzPublicCalifornia
University of Central ArkansasPublicArkansas
University of Central FloridaPublicFlorida
University of Central MissouriPublicMissouri
University of CincinnatiPublicOhio
University of Colorado DenverPublicColorado
University of ConnecticutPublicConnecticut
University of DelawarePublicDelaware
University of DenverPrivateColorado
University of GeorgiaPublicGeorgia
University of Hawaii at ManoaPublicHawaii
University of Hawaii HiloPublicHawaii
University of HoustonPublicTexas
University of IdahoPublicIdaho
University of Illinois at ChicagoPublicIllinois
University of Illinois at SpringfieldPublicIllinois
University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignPublicIllinois
University of IowaPublicIowa
University of KansasPublicKansas
University of KentuckyPublicKentucky
University of MainePublicMaine
University of Maine at Fort KentPublicMaine
University of Maine Presque IslePublicMaine
University of Mary WashingtonPublicVirginia
University of Maryland, Baltimore CountyPublicMaryland
University of Massachusetts - AmherstPublicMassachusetts
University of Massachusetts - BostonPublicMassachusetts
University of Massachusetts at DartmouthPublicMassachusetts
University of MemphisPublicTennessee
University of Michigan - Ann ArborPublicMichigan
University of Michigan - DearbornPublicMichigan
University of Michigan - FlintPublicMichigan
University of Minnesota - MorrisPublicMinnesota
University of Minnesota - Twin CitiesPublicMinnesota
University of Missouri - ColumbiaPublicMissouri
University of Missouri-Kansas CityPublicMissouri
University of Missouri-St. LouisPublicMissouri
University of MontanaPublicMontana
University of Montana WesternPublicMontana
University of MontevalloPublicAlabama
University of Nebraska - LincolnPublicNebraska
University of Nebraska OmahaPublicNebraska
University of Nevada, Las VegasPublicNevada
University of Nevada, RenoPublicNevada
University of New MexicoPublicNew Mexico
University of New OrleansPublicLouisiana
University of North AlabamaPublicAlabama
University of North GeorgiaPublicGeorgia
University of North TexasPublicTexas
University of Northern ColoradoPublicColorado
University of Northern IowaPublicIowa
University of OklahomaPublicOklahoma
University of OregonPublicOregon
University of PennsylvaniaPrivatePennsylvania
University of PittsburghPublicPennsylvania
University of Rhode IslandPublicRhode Island
University of RichmondPrivateVirginia
University of RochesterPrivateNew York
University of South AlabamaPublicAlabama
University of South Carolina ColumbiaPublicSouth Carolina
University of South DakotaPublicSouth Dakota
University of South Florida at Saint PetersburgPublicFlorida
University of Southern IndianaPublicIndiana
University of Southern MainePublicMaine
University of Texas at ArlingtonPublicTexas
University of Texas at AustinPublicTexas
University of Texas at El PasoPublicTexas
University of Texas at San AntonioPublicTexas
University of Texas at TylerPublicTexas
University of Texas Rio Grande ValleyPublicTexas
University of ToledoPublicOhio
University of UtahPublicUtah
University of VermontPublicVermont
University of West AlabamaPublicAlabama
University of West FloridaPublicFlorida
University of West GeorgiaPublicGeorgia
University of Wisconsin - Eau ClairePublicWisconsin
University of Wisconsin - Green BayPublicWisconsin
University of Wisconsin - La CrossePublicWisconsin
University of Wisconsin - MadisonPublicWisconsin
University of Wisconsin - OshkoshPublicWisconsin
University of Wisconsin - StoutPublicWisconsin
University of Wisconsin MilwaukeePublicWisconsin
Utah Valley UniversityPublicUtah
Vanderbilt UniversityPrivateTennessee
Vassar CollegePrivateNew York
Virginia Commonwealth UniversityPublicVirginia
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityPublicVirginia
Wake Forest UniversityPrivateNorth Carolina
Washington and Lee UniversityPrivateVirginia
Washington State UniversityPublicWashington
Washington University in St. LouisPrivateMissouri
Wayne State UniversityPublicMichigan
Weber State UniversityPublicUtah
Wellesley CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Wesleyan UniversityPrivateConnecticut
West Virginia UniversityPublicWest Virginia
Western Colorado UniversityPublicColorado
Western Illinois UniversityPublicIllinois
Western Kentucky UniversityPublicKentucky
Western Oregon UniversityPublicOregon
Western Washington UniversityPublicWashington
Wheaton CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Whitman CollegePrivateWashington
Wichita State UniversityPublicKansas
William Paterson UniversityPublicNew Jersey
Williams CollegePrivateMassachusetts
Winston-Salem State UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
Worcester Polytechnic InstitutePrivateMassachusetts
Wright State UniversityPublicOhio
Yale UniversityPrivateConnecticut
Youngstown State UniversityPublicOhio

Green Light Schools

Alcorn State UniversityPublicMississippi
Appalachian State UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
Arizona State UniversityPublicArizona
Auburn UniversityPublicAlabama
Claremont McKenna CollegePrivateCalifornia
Cleveland State UniversityPublicOhio
Colorado Mesa UniversityPublicColorado
Delta State UniversityPublicMississippi
DePauw UniversityPrivateIndiana
Duke UniversityPrivateNorth Carolina
East Carolina UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
Eastern Kentucky UniversityPublicKentucky
Elizabeth City State UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
Emory UniversityPrivateGeorgia
Fayetteville State UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
Florida State UniversityPublicFlorida
George Mason UniversityPublicVirginia
Georgia Institute of TechnologyPublicGeorgia
Jackson State University PublicMississippi
Kansas State UniversityPublicKansas
Keene State CollegePublicNew Hampshire
McNeese State UniversityPublicLouisiana
Michigan Technological UniversityPublicMichigan
Mississippi State UniversityPublicMississippi
North Carolina Central UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
North Carolina State UniversityPublicNorth Carolina
Northern Arizona UniversityPublicArizona
Oregon State UniversityPublicOregon
PennWest EdinboroPublicPennsylvania
Plymouth State UniversityPublicNew Hampshire
Purdue UniversityPublicIndiana
Purdue University Fort WaynePublicIndiana
Purdue University NorthwestPublicIndiana
Radford UniversityPublicVirginia
Shippensburg UniversityPublicPennsylvania
State University of New York - BrockportPublicNew York
State University of New York - PlattsburghPublicNew York
Texas A&M UniversityPublicTexas
The College of William & MaryPublicVirgina
University of ArizonaPublicArizona
University of California Los AngelesPublicCalifornia
University of ChicagoPrivateIllinois
University of Colorado at BoulderPublicColorado
University of FloridaPublicFlorida
University of LouisvillePublicKentucky
University of Maryland - College ParkPublicMaryland
University of MississippiPublicMississippi
University of New HampshirePublicNew Hampshire
University of North Carolina - PembrokePublicNorth Carolina
University of North Carolina at AshevillePublicNorth Carolina
University of North Carolina Chapel HillPublicNorth Carolina
University of North Carolina CharlottePublicNorth Carolina
University of North Carolina GreensboroPublicNorth Carolina
University of North Carolina School of the ArtsPublicNorth Carolina
University of North Carolina WilmingtonPublicNorth Carolina
University of North DakotaPublicNorth Dakota
University of North FloridaPublicFlorida
University of South FloridaPublicFlorida
University of Southern MississippiPublicMississippi
University of Tennessee KnoxvillePublicTennessee
University of TulsaPrivateOklahoma
University of VirginiaPublicVirginia
Western Carolina UniversityPublicNorth Carolina

Warning Schools

Baylor UniversityPrivateTexas
Brigham Young UniversityPrivateUtah
Hillsdale CollegePrivateMichigan
Pepperdine UniversityPrivateCalifornia
Saint Louis UniversityPrivateMissouri
United States Military AcademyPublicNew York
United States Naval AcademyPublicMaryland
Yeshiva UniversityPrivateNew York

Rating Changes, 2022–2023 Academic Year

SCHOOL2021-2022 RATING2022-2023 RATING
Amherst CollegeRedYellow
Boston UniversityRedYellow
Bridgewater State UniversityYellowRed
Carleton CollegeRedYellow
DePauw UniversityYellowGreen
Fitchburg State UniversityYellowRed
Georgia Institute of TechnologyYellowGreen
Gettysburg CollegeYellowRed
Louisiana Tech UniversityYellowRed
Massachusetts College of Liberal ArtsYellowRed
Nicholls State UniversityRedYellow
Radford UniversityYellowGreen
Salem State UniversityYellowRed
Skidmore CollegeRedYellow
Tulane UniversityRedYellow
University of Southern CaliforniaYellowRed
University of TulsaYellow Green
University of Wisconsin - OshkoshRedYellow
West Chester University of PennsylvaniaYellowRed
Western Colorado UniversityGreenYellow
Worcester State UniversityYellowRed

Schools At Which A Faculty Or Administrative Body Has Adopted A Version Of The ‘Chicago Statement’​​

Adrian College
American University
Arizona State University
Ashland University
Ball State University
Board of Regents, State of Iowa
Boston University
Bowling Green State University
Brandeis University
California State University Channel Islands
Case Western Reserve University
Chapman University
Christopher Newport University
City University of New York
Claremont McKenna College
Clark University
Clemson University
Cleveland State University
Colgate University
Colorado Mesa University
Columbia University
Davidson College
Denison University
DePauw University
Eckerd College
Franklin & Marshall College
George Mason University
George Washington University
Georgetown University
Gettysburg College
Glendale Community College
Jacksonville State University
Johns Hopkins University
Joliet Junior College
Jones County Junior College
Kansas Board of Regents
Kenyon College
Kettering University
King University
Louisiana State University System
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Miami University
Michigan State University
Michigan Technological University
Middle Tennessee State University
Nevada System of Higher Education
Northern Arizona University
Northern Illinois University
Northwood University
Ohio State University
Ohio University
Ohio Wesleyan University
Princeton University
Purdue University System
Ranger College
Shawnee State University
Smith College
Snow College
South Dakota University System
Southern Methodist University
Southern Utah University
St. Mary's University
State University of New York- University at Buffalo
State University System of Florida
Stetson University
Suffolk University
Tennessee Technological University
The Citadel
University of Akron
University of Alabama System
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
University of Cincinnati
University of Colorado System
University of Denver
University of Louisiana System
University of Maine System
University of Massachusetts Boston
University of Minnesota
University of Missouri System
University of Montana
University of Nebraska System
University of North Carolina System
University of Oklahoma
University of Richmond
University of South Carolina
University of Southern Indiana
University of Southern Mississippi
University of Texas System
University of Toledo
University of Tulsa
University of Virginia
University of Virginia College at Wise
University of Wisconsin System
University of Wyoming
University System of Maryland
Utica College
Vanderbilt University
Virginia Tech
Washington and Lee University
Washington University in St. Louis
Wheaton College
Winthrop University
Wright State University
Youngstown State University