Case Overview

Legal Principle at Issue

Whether the oath requirement of sect. 4 of the Naturalization Act of 1906 permits a pacifist to become a citizen.


Reversed. Petitioning party received a favorable disposition.

Importance of Case

Holmes' dissent in this case was the last "free speech" opinion he wrote. This case was argued by Olive H. Rabe, the first woman to argue a freedom of conscience case in the Supreme Court. Her client in the Court was also a woman, Rosika Schwimmer.

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